As per latest statistics, India ranks third after US and China in terms of obesity. Approximately One in every five people is either overweight or obese. The number of overweight and obese people has increased globally from 857 million to 2.1 billion from 1980 to 2013, which comprises one-third of the global population.
Thankfully, the treatment procedure to deal with obesity had also developed over time. Bariatric surgery or more commonly known as weight loss surgery in Kolkata is a medical approach to deal with obesity. It provides long term relief from obesity that generally last a lifetime.
The weight-loss surgery aims to reduce the overall weight from the body by making permanent change to its digestive system. During these surgeries, either the stomach is reduced significantly to limit the amount of food intake or dissecting and re-routing the small intestine to reduce the nutrient absorption.
Several weight-loss surgeries are as follows-
1. Adjustable Gastric Band
The stomach is tied using a silicone band and divided into a smaller pouch on top and a larger pouch in bottom. The size of this pouch can be adjusted by addition or removal of saline water through a port placed under the skin.
Today most of this type of weight-loss surgeries in Kolkata are done by laparoscopic approach, which provides the name ‘lap band’. After the surgery, the food gets stored only in the small pouch and thus, the person feels ‘full’ sooner after eating.
2. Gastric Sleeves
In this method, the stomach is reduced up to 15% of its original size. The cut is made along the larger curvature. It is then stapled and the major part is then removed from the abdominal cavity. The reduced stomach ensures the less consumption of food along with less secretion of ghrelin, the hunger causing hormone.
3. Gastric Bypass
It is done by segregating the stomach into a smaller top pouch and a larger portion. Also, the small intestine is dissected in between. This smaller pouch is then connected to the small intestine. The larger portion of the stomach still produces enzymes for digestion of the food, and it meets the semi-digested food inside the small intestine instead of stomach itself.
After the surgery, the food gets stored only in the smaller pouch and thus, decreases the amount of food one can consume.
4. Duodenal Switch
this surgical method comprises of both restriction and mal-absorption. The stomach is reduced to about 25 percentage of its actual shape. The rest of the stomach is stapled and removed. The small intestine is then rerouted and connected to the banana shaped stomach. The remaining part of the small intestine is not removed out of the body as it still produces digestive enzymes. This reduces the amount of food intake and ensures less absorption of nutrient by the body.